An 1862 monograph by pioneering French neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875) is full of disturbing photos of human subjects. Using electrodes, the scientist triggered muscular contractions in their faces. You know, for science.

The scientist was trying to figure out whether there was some kind of evolutionary basis for facial expressions, so he would shock various parts of his subjects' faces to see if he could regularly induce certain expressions.

Advertisement

Terror

Advertisement

Attention

Profound attention

Advertisement

Reflexion

Cruelty

Advertisement

Joy

Advertisement

Crying

Very unhappy

Advertisement

Dissatisfaction

Pain

Advertisement

Natural laughter

Advertisement

False laughter

Advertisement

Sorrowful Prayer

Flirtatiousness

Advertisement

Surprise

Astonishment

Advertisement

Fearful

Advertisement

More photos of patients

Advertisement

____

Top photo: Wikimedia Commons, others: Wellcome Library and Internet Archive.

Advertisement