Papyrus rolls buried in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD were discovered 260 years ago in the ruins of Herculaneum. But they're so fragile that it's never been possible to read them without inadvertently destroying them — until now.
Before being entombed with ash by Mount Vesuvius, Pompeii was a thriving city. There was government, there was infrastructure — and yes, there was graffiti. Very vulgar, very explicit graffitti.
Even at the the far edge of the mud and ash that came from the Pompeii volcano's explosion, the heat was sufficient to instantly kill everyone, even those inside their homes.